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Learn ten factors that can impact your menstrual cycle and throw them off. Discover the value of dietary habits.

Sep 20, 2023 By Madison Evans

Menstrual periods are essential to reproductive health. They can be predictable for many women, but various things can affect them. Understanding these factors is critical for maintaining reproductive and overall health.

1. Physical Stress

Physical stress pertains to any strain or trauma our body experiences, which can directly or indirectly impact various biological processes, including menstruation. The physical stressors leading to menstrual irregularities range from rigorous physical activities to significant weight fluctuations.

Rigorous Physical Activity

Engaging in intense physical exertion affects the body's hormonal equilibrium. High-intensity sports, marathon training, and professional athletic pursuits are examples of activities that can cause disruptions. In response to the increased demand for energy and repair, the body may prioritize resources away from reproductive functions.

Dr. Veronica Lerner from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Lenox Hill Hospital mentioned that the body could perceive extreme physical exertion as stress, subsequently halting the production of fertility hormones. This can lead to shorter menstrual cycles, lighter menstrual flow, or even amenorrhea – the complete cessation of menstrual periods.

Weight Fluctuations

Body weight has a direct correlation with menstrual health. Estrogen is pivotal in regulating the menstrual cycle and is produced in the adipose tissue (body fat). Therefore, dramatic weight changes can influence estrogen production. Rapid weight loss can decrease estrogen levels, leading to lighter or missed periods. Conversely, sudden weight gain can elevate estrogen levels, which might cause heavier and more extended menstrual cycles. The Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism has published studies showcasing the direct relationship between significant weight changes and menstrual irregularities.

2. Emotional and Mental Stress

The link between our mental state and physiological functions is undeniable. Emotional or psychological stress, acute or chronic, can wreak havoc on menstrual regularity.

Chronic Stress

Hormonal imbalance might result from prolonged stress. The body produces cortisol in reaction to persistent stress. Elevated levels of cortisol can suppress the body's reproductive hormones. Dr. Holly Puritz, medical director of ob-gyn services at Sentara Leigh Hospital, elucidated that high-stress times are not considered favorable for reproduction from an evolutionary perspective. This can lead to delayed ovulation and, subsequently, a delayed period.

Acute Stress

While chronic stress has prolonged effects, traumatic events or short-term high-stress situations can also impact menstrual regularity temporarily. Conditions such as the death of a loved one, a significant life change, or severe work-related stress can lead to a missed period or changes in menstrual flow. The Journal of Women's Health has documented instances where acute stressful events have caused temporary menstrual disruptions.

3. Hormonal Imbalances

Hormonal imbalances occur when there is a disproportion in the levels of hormones in the body, and they play a significant role in menstrual regularities.

Thyroid Issues

The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism, energy, and body temperature. An imbalance in thyroid hormone levels directly impacts menstrual health. A hyperactive thyroid causes more frequent but lighter menstrual cycles. Infrequent and heavier periods might develop from hypothyroidism. Thyroid Research Institute Journal studies have demonstrated how thyroid issues affect menstruation health.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PCOS

Women of reproductive age often have PCOS. Women with PCOS often have elevated levels of male hormones or androgens, which can cause irregular menstrual cycles or even the complete absence of periods (amenorrhea). Other symptoms include excessive facial hair and difficulty with fertility. The PCOS Society Journal has highlighted that around 10% of women suffer from PCOS, making it crucial to address and manage for maintaining reproductive health.

4. Dietary Habits

Nutritional intake plays a pivotal role in influencing menstrual health. A well-balanced diet ensures that the body receives the essential nutrients to function correctly, including the proper functioning of the reproductive system.

The Impact of Restrictive Diets

Individuals who engage in severe caloric restrictions or omit vital nutrients risk disrupting their menstrual cycle. Restrictive diets can lead to significant weight loss, which, as previously discussed, can interfere with estrogen levels and, in turn, menstrual regularity. Moreover, when the body perceives it is in a state of famine, it might deem conditions unfavorable for reproduction, leading to cycle disturbances.

Period Diet and Nutrient Needs

Certain nutrients and foods can influence period cramps and overall menstrual comfort. For instance, a magnesium-rich diet and omega-3 fatty acids can alleviate period cramps. On the other hand, excessive caffeine or salty foods exacerbate bloating and discomfort. Consuming an anti-inflammatory period diet can not only help in relieving cramps but also in regulating the cycle.

5. Birth Control and Medications

Medications, especially hormonal birth control, are known influencers of menstrual cycles.

Hormonal Birth Control

Birth control pills, patches, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) release hormones that can suppress ovulation, leading to altered or missed periods. Especially during the initial months of starting hormonal birth control, spotting or irregular bleeding is common. It's also not specific to minimal to no period bloodclotting on certain birth control methods.

Other Medications

Aside from birth control, some medications like antipsychotics, chemotherapy drugs, and antidepressants can influence menstrual regularity. It's crucial to consult a healthcare provider if one notices menstrual changes after starting a new medication.

6. Underlying Medical Conditions

Certain medical conditions can impact menstrual regularity directly or indirectly.


Endometriosis is a painful disorder wherein the tissue similar to the lining inside the uterus grows outside the uterus. This condition can cause intense period cramps and lead to irregular menstruation.

Uterine Fibroids

These non-cancerous growths of the uterus can cause heavy bleeding and a period of blood clotting. Women with fibroids may notice an increase in the size of clots during their period.

7. Age and Menopause

Menstrual cycles become erratic as women approach menopause.


Estrogen and progesterone levels change before menopause. These oscillations can affect menstrual cycle duration, flow, and cramps. Women's reproductive years finish with menopause. Leading up to it, periods can become sporadic before they cease entirely.

8. Environmental Factors

Surprisingly, our surroundings and environment can also affect menstrual health.


Studies have shown that high altitudes can disrupt the menstrual cycle. Women living or traveling to high-altitude areas might experience cycle length and intensity changes.

Period Diet and External Pollutants

Exposure to certain chemicals and pollutants can influence hormonal balance. Pesticides, for instance, can mimic hormones, leading to cycle irregularities. Adjusting one's period diet to include organic foods can help reduce exposure to such disruptors.

9. Underlying Health Conditions

Some underlying health issues and conditions can also throw off your periods.

Eating Disorders

Disorders such as anorexia or bulimia can disrupt menstrual cycles due to hormonal changes related to weight and stress.

Chronic Diseases

Conditions like uncontrolled diabetes or celiac disease can lead to menstrual irregularities.

10. Travel and Lifestyle Changes

If you’re traveling and noticing changes in your cycle, you’re not alone.

Jet Lag

Crossing time zones can disturb the body's internal clock and, by extension, menstrual regularity. As Dr. Baker noted, frequent travel might lead to menstrual disruptions.

Dietary Changes

Adopting a very restrictive diet or drastically altering eating habits can impact menstrual regularity.


Understanding the multifaceted factors influencing menstrual regularity is essential for women's health. If you experience persistent menstrual irregularities, it's crucial to consult with a healthcare provider to ensure optimal reproductive and overall health.

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