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Learn about the six menopause side symptoms, their causes, numbers, and therapeutic options.

Sep 20, 2023 By Nancy Miller

Menopause, often termed the 'change of life,' is a natural phase in a woman’s life, marking the end of her reproductive years. Menopause, a regular aspect of aging, is different for every woman. Many have a variety of symptoms, some more severe and disturbing. Let’s uncover some common side effects witnessed after experiencing menopause.

1. Night Sweats and Hot flashes

Defining the Sensation

Hot flashes—a quick rush of warmth or heat—usually affect the face, neck, and chest. These bouts might last seconds to minutes and cause redness and sweating. On the other hand, night sweats are heat waves interrupting sleep.

The prevalence

Hot flashes affect almost 75% of menopausal women, according to the National Institute on Aging. Some experience brief discomfort, but others experience severe and frequent symptoms that impact everyday life.

Triggers and Causes

While the core cause of hot flashes remains linked to declining estrogen levels during menopause, certain external factors can act as triggers. These include spicy foods, caffeine, alcohol, tight clothing, heat, and stress.

Duration and Intensity

Hot flashes vary in frequency and severity among women. Some have them daily, others once a week. Hot flashes last seven years on average, although some women have had them for a decade.

Strategies for management

  • Preventing triggers can minimize episode frequency and intensity.
  • Some propose Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), however hazards must be considered.
  • Some women may benefit from non-prescription phytoestrogens.
  • Breathing exercises and relaxation strategies minimize hot flashes.

2. Dryness and Discomfort Vaginally

Unpacking the Problem

Many women have vaginal symptoms during menopause. The most common is vaginal dryness, caused by decreased tissue moisture and suppleness. This loss in lubrication can cause sexual pain, lowering satisfaction and damaging intimate relationships.

The Prevalence

Over half of postmenopausal women have vaginal atrophy, which causes irritation and thinning of the vaginal walls, according to the North American Menopause Society. These figures emphasize the need to manage vaginal dryness in menopausal women.

Impact of Hormones

Estrogen, essential to female reproductive health, keeps the vaginal lining thick and moist. Estrogen levels plummet after menopause, making vaginal walls thin, less elastic, and more vulnerable to injury.

Beyond Physical Discomfort

The effects of vaginal dryness extend beyond mere physical discomfort. It can lead to a cascade of emotional and psychological concerns. Feelings of frustration, embarrassment, and a decreased sense of femininity can accompany these physical changes, emphasizing the necessity for holistic care.

Management Strategies

To mitigate the effects of vaginal dryness and discomfort:

  • Over-the-counter vaginal moisturizers can provide temporary relief.
  • Water-based lubricants are recommended to ease pain during intercourse.
  • Topical estrogen therapies, available in creams, rings, or tablets, can rejuvenate the vaginal tissue by restoring local estrogen levels. These treatments are usually prescribed after evaluating the potential risks and benefits.

3. Sleep Disturbances

It has been attested by research that menopause can cause changes in sleep cycles.

The Link to Menopause

The quality and quantity of sleep can be significantly impacted during menopause. Night sweats, hormonal changes, and other associated symptoms often disrupt the regular sleep pattern, leading to fatigue and decreased daily functionality.


Sleep disturbances are far from rare during menopause. Between 40-60% of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women face disrupted sleep, ranging from difficulty falling asleep to frequent nighttime awakenings.

Causes Behind Sleep Challenges

Night sweats and hot flashes are the primary culprits. The sudden rise in body temperature can cause discomfort, pulling women out of deep sleep. Moreover, the hormonal shift during menopause can also alter the circadian rhythm, affecting the natural sleep-wake cycle.

The Ripple Effect of Poor Sleep

Chronic sleep disturbances can lead to various secondary issues, including mood swings, decreased cognitive function, and increased susceptibility to health complications like heart disease and obesity.

Management Strategies

Maintaining a consistent sleep schedule and fostering a calm environment for bedtime can enhance sleep quality.

The use of cooling bedding and sleepwear can help manage night sweats.

Relaxation techniques, such as progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery, can promote sleep.

4. Mood Changes and Depression

Many women experience emotional turmoil throughout menopause. Hormonal changes can cause mood swings, irritation, and despair.

The prevalence

While mood swings are frequent, many women have more severe emotional difficulties. Up to 20% of menopausal women have clinical depression, according to the APA.

A Hormone-Emotion Connection

Estrogen's functions go beyond reproduction. Interacts with mood-regulating neurotransmitter serotonin. Low estrogen levels during menopause can impair this connection, causing mood swings.

Impact on Quality of Life

Prolonged mood changes and depression can influence a woman's life, affecting personal relationships, job performance, and overall well-being.

Management Strategies

  • Regular counseling sessions provide a platform to voice concerns and feelings.
  • Engaging in physical activity, like walking or yoga, can uplift mood.
  • Hormonal therapies or antidepressants may be considered in consultation with healthcare professionals.

5. Decreased Bone Density (Osteoporosis)

Osteoporosis Unveiled

Osteoporosis weakens bones, increasing fracture risk. This problem might go undiagnosed for years until a simple fall produces a fracture.

The prevalence

The International Osteoporosis Foundation reports disturbingly common osteoporotic fractures. One in three women over 50 are at risk of these fractures, underscoring the necessity of bone health monitoring during and after menopause age.

The Link to Menopause

Declining estrogen levels during menopause play a pivotal role in bone health deterioration. Estrogen helps in the absorption of calcium and the rebuilding of bones, and a decrease in its levels can accelerate bone loss.

Potential Consequences

Fractures resulting from osteoporosis can be debilitating, leading to prolonged pain, decreased mobility, and, in severe cases, increased mortality.

Management Strategies

  • Daily weight-bearing workouts strengthen bones.
  • Calcium and vitamin D consumption are crucial.
  • Bisphosphonates may halt bone loss and boost bone density.

6. Cognitive and Memory Changes

Exploring Cognitive Symptoms

Menopause age causes several changes, some of which influence brain function. Menopausal women often have memory loss, concentration, and other cognitive issues.


Menopause symptoms Research indicates that cognitive symptoms can be a concern for most women transitioning through menopause, with around 60% of women noting some form of mental disruption.

Causes Behind Cognitive Shifts

Although side effects of menopause are not entirely understood, these cognitive menopause symptoms disturbances are believed to be influenced by fluctuating hormone levels, particularly estrogen, which has known effects on brain function and structure.

Impact on Daily Life

Although usually subtle, memory and cognitive changes can affect daily activities, job performance, and self-confidence.

Management Strategies

Engaging in mentally stimulating activities can help bolster cognitive functions.

Adequate sleep and stress management can play a role in mitigating these changes.

In some cases, hormone therapy or other treatments might be recommended after a thorough evaluation by healthcare professionals.


The journey through menopause and the side effects of menopause are as unique as the individual experiencing it. Women can better navigate this significant life transition by understanding and recognizing the potential side effects. Collaborating with healthcare professionals and adopting individualized management strategies can make the menopausal phase more manageable and less disruptive.

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